Before we learn how to kill bacteria, we should know what bacteria are and why we need to kill them? Bacteria are microorganisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are prokaryote and unicellular and do not show true branching. They are not visible to the naked eyes. We must use a light microscope to see them. Bacteria are present everywhere and many of them are non-pathogenic and some are beneficial for the human body. But there are many pathogenic bacteria that cause disease in humans. We need to learn how to kill bacteria to prevent ourselves from infections, to prevent spoilage of food, and to prevent contamination of materials used in pure culture work in laboratories.

The process of killing bacteria and other micro-organisms either in a vegetative or a spore state is known as sterilization. In other words, Sterilization refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium and others present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as a biological culture media. Disinfection is defined as destruction of all pathogenic organisms or organisms capable of giving rise to infection. It is less effective than sterilization as spores are not destroyed by all types of disinfectants.

Sterilization involves many physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell which finally leads to the removal or destruction of that cell. Some changes are denaturation and coagulation of cellular proteins at higher temperatures, specific chemical combination which destroy and alter enzymatic reactions, damage of nucleic acids by radiation and others.

Sterilization or bacterial killing is brought about by many methods, such as physical methods, irradiation and chemical agents or disinfectants. Based on the availability of the method and the materials to be sterilized, we can choose which method to use.

Keep Safe Your Family from Epidemics Covid 19

Teach and reinforce everyday preventive actions

Wash hands

Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds and encourage your child to do the same. Read more and watch a video on how to wash hands correctly.
If soap and water are not available, use hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Teach your child to cover all surfaces of their hands with hand sanitizer and rub their hands together until they feel dry. If your child is under 6 years of age, supervise them when they use hand sanitizer.


Wear a mask

Make sure everyone in your household wears a mask (if 2 years of age or older) when in public and when around people who don’t live in your household. Ensure your child wears their masks correctly and safely.
Some children may find it challenging to wear a mask. If your child finds it challenging, you can consider alternatives.

Avoid close contact

Make sure your child and everyone else in your household keep at least 6 feet away from other people who don’t live with them and people who are sick (such as coughing and sneezing).

Cover coughs and sneezes

When coughing or sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue, throw your tissue in closest garbage can, and wash your hands. Encourage your child and all household members to do the same.